Pharmacy practitioners enjoy a special trust and authority based on the profession’s commitment to a code of ethical behavior in its management of patient-centered pharmaceutical care. The inculcation of a sense of responsible professional behavior is a critical component of professional education, and high standards of ethical conduct are expected of pharmacy students and faculty. Violators of University rules on scholastic dishonesty are subject to appropriate disciplinary penalties. Since dishonesty harms the individual, fellow students, and the integrity of the University and the College of Pharmacy, policies on scholastic dishonesty must be strictly enforced.
The Honor Code is designed to maintain the quality and integrity of the College of Pharmacy. Matriculation to the University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy is manifestation of acceptance of the Honor Code and its implications.
Article I: Principles
- The purpose of the Honor Code is to stimulate and promote the ideals of honesty and integrity. If all students and faculty fulfill their respective responsibilities as described in the Code, the culture of honesty and integrity that is so important to the success of the pharmacy profession will be maintained.
- The Honor Code is based on the principle that a student, when placed on his or her honor, will not violate that trust. It is the obligation of the student or faculty member not to violate the Honor Code nor aid in any violation, and an ethical and professional obligation to report any violation seen or suspected.
- Students in the College of Pharmacy are responsible for upholding the principles of the Policy Statement on Scholastic Dishonesty and Ethical Conduct in the College of Pharmacy at U.T. Austin 1 , namely:
- To understand the definition of scholastic dishonesty.
- To understand the instructions for each assignment, quiz, or examination.
- To refrain from committing any acts of scholastic dishonesty.
- To take appropriate action when acts of scholastic dishonesty are observed.
- To understand the importance of confidentiality in pharmacy practice and the ramifications of breaching patient trust.
- To engage in appropriate classroom and laboratory conduct.
- Faculty in the College of Pharmacy are responsible for upholding the principles of the Policy Statement on Scholastic Dishonesty and Ethical Conduct in the College of Pharmacy at U.T. Austin 1, namely:
- To communicate clearly in writing the instructions for each assignment.
- To design examinations that minimize the opportunity for scholastic dishonesty.
- To evaluate assignments on the basis of reasonable expectations given the difficulty of the assignment.
- To actively and consistently enforce the University rules governing scholastic dishonesty.
- To be familiar with the scholastic dishonesty policy.
- To actively and consistently promote a classroom environment conducive to learning.
Article II: Pledge and Oath
- Upon entering the University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy, each student will be asked to recite and sign the following pledge:
“As a student of The University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy, I shall abide by the core values of the University and uphold academic integrity.”
“The core values of The University of Texas at Austin are learning, discovery, freedom, leadership, individual opportunity, and responsibility. Each member of the University is expected to uphold these values through integrity, honesty, trust, fairness, and respect towards peers and community.”
- The following oath will be included at the end of all class examinations. At the discretion of the instructor, the oath may also be required for other assignments such as quizzes, written reports, or papers:
“I have neither participated in nor witnessed any acts of academic dishonesty pertaining to this assignment.”
Article III: Reporting
- A student who observes a possible academic dishonesty violation always has the option of directly notifying the violator that he or she is suspected of engaging in academic dishonesty and reaffirming to the violator the principles of the Honor Code and expectations of academic integrity. Alternatively, the student may use one of two more formal actions as follows:
- Reporting the violation directly to the instructor or course coordinator. The faculty member will then decide what action, if any, should be taken.
- Reporting the violation indirectly to the instructor or course coordinator by not signing the oath at the end of the exam or assignment. Any student who does not sign the oath can be expected to be contacted by the instructor or course coordinator for discussion of the reasons why the oath was not signed. The faculty member will then decide what action, if any, should be taken.
- Any academic dishonesty violation reported to the instructor or course coordinator must be dealt with according to University guidelines (available in the General Information Bulletin 2, Chapter 11, Student Discipline and Conduct, or at the Office of Student Conduct and Academic Integrity web site athttp://deanofstudents.utexas.edu/sjs.) and is done collaboratively with the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. Faculty member investigation of the alleged incident may include:
- Meeting with the student(s) involved and discussion of the alleged violation and the evidence that supports the charge. After conferring with the student, the faculty member may dismiss the allegation or proceed according to University guidelines. In any case where the student disputes the facts upon which the charges are based, he or she may request a hearing according to the University guidelines. The Associate Dean for Academic Affairs should participate in any such meeting to ensure due process according to University rules
- Referral of the case to the dean of students, again, through the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs..
Article IV: Authorized Academic Penalties
- The range of penalties for scholastic dishonesty recommended by a faculty member for violations in their course may include but is not limited to:
- failing grade or reduced final grade in the course.
- retaking of examination or resubmission of assignment.
- no credit or reduced credit for the paper, assignment, or exam in question.
- written warning that further scholastic violations may result in a more severe penalty.
In addition, the Associate Dean for Academic affairs can recommend, or the University may pursue additional penalties (e.g., for particularly egregious or repeated transgressions), including but not limited to:
- The outcomes of such cases, including penalties assessed, shall remain confidential.
1 Policy Statement on Scholastic Dishonesty and Ethical Conduct in the College of Pharmacy at U.T. Austin, adopted 1998. See complete Policy Statement below.
POLICY STATEMENT ON ETHICAL CONDUCT AND SCHOLASTIC INTEGRITY IN THE COLLEGE OF PHARMACY
For more than a century, the UT College of Pharmacy has played a pivotal role in assuring that pharmacy students receive unsurpassed educational opportunities to prepare them for current and future practice environments. The College offers a rigorous and expansive professional curriculum preparing students to become progressive pharmacists. Opportunities for graduate studies are also available at both the Master’s and Doctorate level while advanced professional training is offered through residencies and fellowships. Additionally, the College’s statewide internship program affords a wealth of diverse educational opportunities to our students in progressive pharmacy practice sites throughout Texas.
Pharmacy practitioners enjoy a special trust and authority based on the profession’s commitment to a code of ethical behavior in its management of client affairs. The inculcation of a sense of responsible professional behavior is a critical component of professional education, and high standards of ethical conduct are expected of pharmacy students. Students who violate University rules on scholastic dishonesty not only violate that special trust, but are also subject to disciplinary penalties, including failure of the course involved and dismissal from the college and/or the University. Since dishonesty harms the individual, fellow students, and the integrity of the University and the College of Pharmacy, policies on scholastic dishonesty are strictly enforced.
It is in all students’ interest not to commit acts of scholastic dishonesty and to discourage others from committing such acts. Each dishonest act can harm the quality and reputation of the College of Pharmacy and thereby lower the value of the honest work of all other students. In a culture of dishonesty, it is impossible to know whether achievements were honestly earned or accomplished through unethical means. In such a culture, grades are not a valid indicator of achievement, and the final degree is not a valid indicator of a minimum level of knowledge. Were the College of Pharmacy to acquire a reputation for tolerating dishonesty, it would devalue the degrees of all present and future alumni.
Maintaining the quality and integrity of the College of Pharmacy is not the only reason why it is important to emphasize ethical conduct. The pharmacy curriculum prepares students for a profession in which honesty and ethical behavior are essential characteristics. The value that pharmacists provide is directly related to the amount of trust the public confides in them. Thus, it is important for students to develop a strong sense of ethics while in school and to carry it with them into the workplace. Students who have completed their education in a culture of ethical behavior should easily make the transition to a culture of ethical behavior as employees.
It is impossible to create an environment that is completely free of opportunities and temptations to behave unethically. In order to maintain the reputation and quality of a degree from the College of Pharmacy, it is the responsibility of each individual to understand the definition of unethical behavior and to resist all temptations to behave unethically. This is easier to do in an atmosphere of honesty, where each student is confident that all other students are also behaving ethically. If all students and faculty fulfill their respective responsibilities as described in this policy statement, the culture of honesty that is so important to the success of the Pharmacy profession will be maintained.
RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE STUDENTS IN COLLEGE OF PHARMACY CLASSES
- To understand the definition of scholastic dishonesty;
The first step in building a culture of honesty is to insure that students have a clear understanding of what is and what is not permissible behavior. The appendix to this policy statement discusses, in some detail, examples of scholastic dishonesty. Each student has the responsibility to read both this document and the standards of conduct for the University carefully, and to make sure that he or she understands what actions constitute scholastic dishonesty. The official University policies on scholastic dishonesty are stated in Chapter 11 of Appendix C of The Institutional Rules on Student Services and Activities. These policies may be found in the General Information catalog and may also be accessed from the Office of Student Conduct and Academic Integrity web site.
- To understand the instructions for each assignment, quiz or examination;
Course objectives differ, and there may be some variation in permissible behavior from one assignment to another, and from one class to another. In some classes exams may be open book, while in many others they will be closed book. Collaboration on assignments will be at the discretion of the course instructor. It is the responsibility of the student to understand the instructions for each assignment and to ask the instructor for clarification whenever necessary.
It is sometimes impractical for an instructor to prepare completely new assignments each time a course is offered. If the ethical implications are not considered, some students may seek inappropriate assistance from a student who took the course previously on assignments for which consultation is not authorized (e.g. previous laboratory reports). However, as discussed in the appendix, to either seek or provide such assistance when it is not authorized would be an act of scholastic dishonesty under all circumstances (see collusion vs. collaboration in the Appendix).
Students are usually directed by the course instructor to complete assignments either on an individual or group basis. Collaboration between individuals or groups may be entirely or partially prohibited. If the ethical implications are not considered, some students may seek unauthorized assistance. However, as also discussed in the appendix, to either seek or provide such assistance when it is not authorized would also be an act of scholastic dishonesty.
It is sometimes the case that a course examination is similar to an examination used in a previous semester. Different instructors have different policies on whether students are authorized to access previous examinations and their solutions. Such policies should be clarified for each individual course. Unless explicitly authorized, students should not seek or provide old examinations, nor should “test banks” be maintained by formal or informal student organizations.
Students should clearly understand the definition of plagiarism and the differences between collaboration and collusion. This includes the different forms that plagiarism can take, including copying portions of books or journals without immediate citation, copying the reports of others, and writing reports for other students (see further information in Appendix). If there is any question or ambiguities, the student should seek clarification from the instructor.
- To refrain from committing any acts of scholastic dishonesty;
If each student understands the definition of scholastic dishonesty and the instructions for each assignment, then he or she should be able to avoid committing acts of scholastic dishonesty. Ignorance of the definition of scholastic dishonesty is not an excuse for dishonest behavior. In addition, although assignments in pharmacy classes are frequently very challenging, the difficulty of an assignment is never an excuse to behave dishonestly.
- To take appropriate action when acts of scholastic dishonesty are observed;
Commission of an act of scholastic dishonesty by a student is not a victimless offense. All of the other students in the class are victims because their honest efforts cannot be fairly evaluated if work by some students has been unfairly accomplished. All other students in the program, even if they are not in that class, are victims because the integrity of the program has been compromised. As a result, to passively observe dishonest behavior is to condone it and to encourage it. To avoid condoning or encouraging such behavior, students have the responsibility to take action that will prevent dishonest acts from occurring now or in the future.
Appropriate actions include confronting the student who has committed the act and/or reporting the observed behavior to the instructor. Failure to act allows dishonest students to victimize all of the honest students in the program, and serves to lower the value of the honest students’ achievements. The concerned individual who reports such an incident can remain confidential.
- To understand the importance of confidentiality in pharmacy practice and the ramifications of breaching patient trust;
Confidentiality is not only an ethical concern but a legal issue as well. Pharmacists, including student interns, are legally bound to safeguard the confidentiality of matters concerning patients. Breaking patient confidentiality is grounds for malpractice.
[Statement adapted from UT School of Social Work – Student Guide to Undergraduate Field, p.30]
Student-interns who exhibit unprofessional conduct, as defined in the P4 APPE Evaluation Form, or within this course syllabus, or as determined by the preceptor-faculty member, regional personnel or the dean’s office, may be removed from the rotation, may fail the course, and may be dismissed from the College and/or University pending investigation. Student-interns will immediately be removed from a rotation for conduct deemed unprofessional by the preceptor-faculty, practice site, or Student Affairs Office, OR if the student-intern’s actions endanger patient health or welfare.
- To engage in appropriate classroom and laboratory conduct
According to the Institutional Rules:
A student has the responsibility not to conduct himself or herself in a manner that impedes, interferes with, or disrupts any university teaching, research, administrative, disciplinary, public service, learning, or other authorized activity. A student may not engage in harassment, defined as conduct that is sufficiently severe, pervasive, or persistent to create an objectively hostile environment that interferes with or diminishes the ability of an individual to participate in or benefit from the services, activities, or privileges provided by the university. A student may not otherwise engage in conduct that is inappropriate for members of an academic institution.
Classroom misconduct or disruptive behavior often irritates fellow students as much as or more than the instructor. Students have the responsibility to themselves as well as to their classmates to engage in appropriate conduct. Other students in the class have the responsibility to neither condone nor tolerate such unprofessional and disruptive behavior.
RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE FACULTY IN COLLEGE OF PHARMACY CLASSES
The faculty also assumes certain responsibilities to maintain a culture of scholastic integrity and a positive learning environment. However, these responsibilities are not a condition that must be met before students are expected to behave honestly. That is, even if a student perceives that a faculty member has not met one of the responsibilities detailed below, this does not justify dishonest or disruptive behavior. The appropriate response in such instances is for the concerned student to discuss the issue with the faculty member and/or the course coordinator.
- To communicate clearly in writing the instructions for each assignment;
One of the most important steps to take to reduce accidental scholastic dishonesty is to communicate clearly to students exactly what behavior is not acceptable. Instructions should either be gathered together in the syllabus for all types of assignments for the course, or should be given on the face of each assignment. In particular, the instructions should clearly indicate with whom, and to what extent, the student may or may not collaborate on out-of-class assignments, and what other resources (books, computers, databases, etc.), if any, may be used on out-of-class assignments.
- To design examinations that minimize the opportunity for scholastic dishonesty;
Course instructors should receive a memorandum from the Dean’s Office of the College of Pharmacy before the first-class day. This memorandum will include suggestions for decreasing the likelihood of cheating with respect to examinations. These suggestions are as follows:
- In crowded classrooms, consider either distributing two forms of the exam, securing a larger exam room, or splitting the class into two rooms thus reducing the temptation to cheat.
- If computer graded exams are given, copy the scantron sheets and only return the copy to the student.
- Provide clear policy on how examinations would be handled for a student who arrives late to the exam, particularly if any students have completed the exam and departed..
- If a student finds a discrepancy between the scantron sheet and the answer circled on the examination paper, the scantron sheet is the official record. Answers from the original examination paper are not to be accepted because a student could easily put one answer on the scantron sheet and a different answer on the exam paper.
- To evaluate assignments on the basis of reasonable expectations given the difficulty of the assignment;
The faculty should attempt to consider the difficulty of the assignment when assigning grades. Faculty should make it clear that most students behaving honestly should be able to complete all assignments perfectly. Assignments in pharmacy classes are frequently designed to provide students with opportunities to work on problems which may be encountered in the pharmacy practice environment. Thus, instructors may often design difficult assignments to better prepare students to face such problems in practice.
To consistently be on guard for plagiarism, an often misunderstood dishonest activity by students, faculty whose courses require report writing should include the University’s definition of plagiarism in their course syllabus. “Plagiarism” includes, but is not limited to, the appropriation, buying, receiving as a gift, or obtaining by any means another’s work and the submission of it as one’s own academic work offered for credit. It may also be necessary to orally convey to students the different forms that plagiarism can take, including copying portions of books or journals without immediate citation, copying the reports of others, and writing reports for other students (see further information in Appendix).
- To actively and consistently enforce the University rules governing scholastic dishonesty;
Even though the faculty assumes that students are behaving honorably, from time to time individual instructors may have evidence that one or more students have committed an act of scholastic dishonesty. Under these circumstances it is the responsibility of the instructor to initiate the University procedures as outlined in The Role of Faculty in Confronting Scholastic Dishonesty brochure published by the Office of Student Conduct and Academic Integrity of the Office of the Dean of Students.
Students who violate University rules on scholastic dishonesty are subject to disciplinary penalties as specified above. These penalties include the possibility of failure in the course and dismissal from the College and/or University, unless there are extenuating circumstances that warrant either a lesser or a greater penalty. For example, a lesser penalty (such as an “F” on the assignment) may be recommended if there is clear evidence of significant mitigating circumstances. On the other hand, a greater penalty (such as suspension from the University) may be recommended by the College and/or the University if the dishonest act is especially egregious, or if the student has committed prior acts of scholastic dishonesty.
All faculty should inform students at the beginning of each semester that scholastic dishonesty will not be tolerated and that incidents of dishonesty will be reported. When a faculty member suspects a student of cheating, University guidelines (available from the Office of the Dean of Students) should be followed. Faculty can virtually eliminate cheating by specifying the ground rules, by challenging students to practice pharmacy ethics, and by creating a testing environment that discourages cheating. In reference to “pharmacy ethics,” see the “Oath of the Pharmacist” in the appendix of this policy statement.
- To be familiar with the scholastic dishonesty policy:
Students who violate University rules on scholastic dishonesty are subject to disciplinary penalties, including the possibility of failure in the course and/or dismissal from the University. Since dishonesty harms the individual, all students, and the integrity of the University, policies on scholastic dishonesty will be strictly enforced. Faculty should refer to the Office of Student Conduct and Academic Integrity web site to access the official University policies and procedures on scholastic dishonesty as well as further elaboration on what constitutes scholastic dishonesty.
- To actively and consistently promote a classroom environment conducive to learning.
A teacher must show high respect for his or her students, which includes setting high expectations and having no tolerance for behavior that impedes, interferes with, or disrupts the learning process. Establishment of clear rules for classroom conduct, including expectations for attendance, on-time arrival, classroom conversations, and respect for fellow classmates, should be included on the course syllabus so that all students are aware of the classroom policies and consequences of violating those policies.
In the case of disruptive activity, faculty should take immediate action to halt and eliminate such disruptive conduct.
Definition of Scholastic Dishonesty
The official policies of the University are outlined in Chapter 11 of the Institutional Rules on Student Services and Activities. The Institutional Rulesmay be found in Appendix C of the General Information catalog and may also be accessed from the Office of Student Conduct and Academic Integrity web site. This appendix elaborates on those policies and provides some examples that are relevant to courses and assignments in College of Pharmacy classes.
The Institutional Rules say that
“Scholastic dishonesty” includes, but is not limited to, cheating, plagiarism, collusion, falsifying academic records, and any act designed to give unfair academic advantage to the student (such as, but not limited to; submission of essentially the same written assignment for two courses without the prior permission of the instructor, providing false or misleading information in an effort to receive a postponement or an extension on a test, quiz, or other assignment), or the attempt to commit such an act.
The Institutional Rules provides the following 13 examples of “cheating.” Bold type indicates the material is quoted from the Institutional Rules, and plain type is the elaboration of the College of Pharmacy.
- Copying from another student’s test paper;
Copying from another student’s examination will always be an act of scholastic dishonesty. In addition, reproducing all or a part of another student’s homework, essay, or other written assignment for which a grade will be assigned will always be an act of scholastic dishonesty.
- During a test using materials not authorized by the person giving the test;
Such materials might include programmable calculators, computers, notes, books, handouts, etc. Students should be sure to clearly understand what materials are permitted for each test.
- Failing to comply with instructions given by the person administering the test;
Students should comply with all instructions, including where to sit, when to begin working on the exam, and when to stop working on the exam.
- Possession during a test of materials which are not authorized by the person giving the test, such as class notes or specifically designed “crib notes.” The presence of textbooks constitutes a violation only if they have been specifically prohibited by the person administering the test. Not only is use of unauthorized materials during a test an act of scholastic dishonesty, but possession of such materials is also an act of scholastic dishonesty. All such materials should be put away out of reach and out of sight.
- Using, buying, stealing, transporting, or soliciting in whole or part the contents of an unadministered test, test key, homework solution, or computer program;
This includes obtaining or providing a solution (prepared either by a student or the instructor) for current semester assignments that are the same as, or similar to, assignments that were used in previous semesters or were otherwise available.
- Collaborating with or seeking aid from another student during a test or other assignment without authority;
Occasionally a student will inadvertently overhear information that may be beneficial in completion of an exam or an assignment. It will constitute scholastic dishonesty if the student uses that information to his or her advantage without reporting the incident to the instructor.
- Discussing the contents of an examination with another student who will take the examination;
Occasionally, students in different sections of the same course will take the same or similar exams at different times on the same day. In addition, because of illness or some other reason, students may take an exam before or after it is taken by the rest of the class. In these circumstances, it is scholastic dishonesty to seek or provide information that may in any way aid a student who has not yet taken the exam. It is the responsibility of the student who has taken the exam to determine whether another student has already taken the exam before discussing it, and it is the responsibility of the student who has not taken the exam to inform other students of that fact.
- Divulging the contents of an examination, for the purpose of preserving questions for use by another, when the instructor has designated that the examination is not to be removed from the examination room or not to be returned to the student;
At times, an instructor will seek to prevent copies of an exam from circulating generally, so that, for example, the exam may be administered to other students. When the instructor has indicated to the students that this is the case, it is an act of scholastic dishonesty to provide or receive information about the contents of that exam.
- Substituting for another person, or permitting another person to substitute for one’s self, to take a test or any course-related assignment;
In Pharmacy classes this is unlikely to occur with in-class exams because all of the students are generally known to the instructor. However, this standard of conduct also applies to all out-of-class assignments for which collaboration is prohibited or constrained. Students are expected to do their own work for such assignments. Collaboration is sometimes encouraged, but this will be made clear by the course instructor.
- Paying or offering money or other valuable thing to, or coercing another person to obtain an unadministered test, test key, homework solution, or computer program, or information about an unadministered test, test key, homework solution, or computer program;
This includes obtaining or providing solutions to current semester assignments or examinations that are the same as, or similar to, assignments or examinations that were used in previous semesters.
- Falsifying data, laboratory reports, and/or other academic work offered for credit;
This includes falsifying data for laboratory reports.
- Taking, keeping, misplacing, or damaging the property of the university, or of another, if the student knows or reasonably should know that an unfair academic advantage would be gained by such conduct;
It will constitute scholastic dishonesty for a student to take, misplace or damage library resources in such a way as to render them unavailable or unfit for other students. Similarly, many students may rely on computer data bases for completion of an assignment. It will constitute scholastic dishonesty for a student to in any way damage the accessibility of computer resources in such a way as to render them unfit for use by other students.
- Misrepresenting facts, including providing false grades or resumes, for the purpose of obtaining an academic or financial benefit or injuring another student academically or financially;
In general, any misrepresentation of facts to gain an unfair advantage will constitute scholastic dishonesty. For example: a student who misleads his or her instructor about the reasons for not taking an examination or for turning in an assignment after the deadline has committed an act of scholastic dishonesty. Similarly, it will be considered an act of scholastic dishonesty for a student to report false information on a resume. This also includes falsifying internship hours. See the section in the appendix on “Academic Dishonesty and Student-Intern Conduct”.
According to the Institutional Rules:
“Plagiarism” includes, but is not limited to, the appropriation, buying, receiving as a gift, or obtaining by any means another’s work and the submission of it as one’s own academic work offered for credit.
Plagiarism can usually be avoided by clearly citing the work of others when it appears in your own work. This means that the full extent of the reliance on the other work is clearly indicated. Whatever is being quoted should either appear in quotation marks (if it is relatively brief) or be indented (if it is more than a sentence or two). If a summary of facts or an argument is presented that is a paraphrase of another’s work, that should be clearly indicated even if the material is not directly quoted.
Plagiarism is not restricted to copying from a published source. Copying without acknowledgment from an unpublished manuscript that was, for example, written by another student would also constitute plagiarism.
If a student completes an assignment and then uses all or a portion of that assignment as full or partial completion of another assignment, in the same class or in a different class, without the express permission of the instructor, the student has committed scholastic dishonesty. In general, substantially the same work product should not be turned in for credit in more than one class without the instructor’s permission.
Students should refer to the Office of Student Conduct and Academic Integrity webpage for more information on plagiarism.
Collusion vs. Collaboration
According to the Institutional Rules:
“Collusion” includes, but is not limited to, the unauthorized collaboration with another person in preparing academic assignments offered for credit or collaboration with another person to commit a violation of any section of the rules on scholastic dishonesty.
In addition to seeking assistance from another student, this includes seeking unauthorized assistance from any non-student, such as a friend or relative. Any assistance from a tutor on a graded assignment is prohibited unless authorized by the instructor in advance.
“Collusion” is an important issue in pharmacy classes. On the one hand, the faculty want to encourage students to interact outside of class. Often this type of interaction facilitates the learning process for everyone. On the other hand, the faculty wish to reserve the right to give students assignments that are to be completed either individually or in small groups outside of class without consulting with others. Such assignments often cannot be completed in class because they require too much time, or because they require library or computer resources not available in the classroom.
It is the responsibility of the instructor to provide clear instructions on the extent of collaboration that is acceptable, and it is the responsibility of the student to understand and to conform to those instructions, not a teaching assistant or another student. The student has the responsibility to clarify any ambiguity by consulting the instructor. Here is a partial list of the types of collaboration instructions that may be given for individual and group assignments:
- Unlimited collaboration with all other students in the class for individual assignments, or with all other groups in the class for group assignments.
- Unlimited collaboration with all other students (groups) in the class prior to producing the final work product such as an essay or report. The writing of the essay or report is to be done strictly on an individual student (group) basis.
- No collaboration is permitted with other students (groups) at all. All aspects of the assignment are to be completed on a strictly individual student (group) basis.
As a general rule, if collaboration with classmates is prohibited, then collaboration with anyone who is not a student in the class will also be prohibited. This includes other Pharmacy students who are not enrolled in the class, other faculty members, and friends and relatives.
Falsifying Academic Records
According to the Institutional Rules:
“Falsifying Academic Records” includes, but is not limited to, the altering or assisting in the altering of grades or other falsification of academic records such as applications for admission, the award of a degree, grade reports, test papers, registration materials, and reporting forms used by the Office of the Registrar.
In the context of a particular course, the most important example of “falsifying academic records” would be changing an answer on a test or other assignment after it has been graded, and then submitting it to be regraded as though it had not been changed. This would be a clear case of scholastic dishonesty.
Ethical Behavior and Student Intern Performance:
The student-intern must maintain professional-ethical standards by:
– Complying with laws and regulations
– Applying good professional judgment in legal interpretations
– Exhibiting reliability and credibility in dealing with others
– Dealing professionally and ethically with colleagues and patients
– Maintaining confidentiality
Students who violate University rules on scholastic dishonesty are subject to disciplinary penalties, including the possibility of failure in the course and dismissal from the College and/or University. Since dishonesty harms the individual, fellow students and the integrity of the University and the College of Pharmacy, policies on scholastic dishonesty will be strictly enforced. Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, falsification of site-based hours and/or special activity hours, and cheating on the practical exam.
If a practitioner-faculty member has reason to believe that a student-intern may be misrepresenting his or her hours as recorded on the hour sheet, the Regional Director or coordinator should be notified immediately. This kind of behavior constitutes academic dishonesty and will not be tolerated. The recommended penalty for falsification of hours is failure of the course and therefore delayed graduation.
Student pharmacist-interns must also abide by all laws and regulations pertaining to a pharmacist-intern as defined by the Texas Pharmacy Act and Rules. Violation of these laws and regulations may jeopardize the intern’s privilege to become a registered pharmacist in Texas and may also result in failure of the course and dismissal from the College and/or University.
CODE OF ETHICS FOR PHARMACISTS
Pharmacists are health professionals who assist individuals in making the best use of medications. This Code, prepared and supported by pharmacists, is intended to state publicly the principles that form the fundamental basis of the roles and responsibilities of pharmacists. These principles, based on moral obligations and virtues, are established to guide pharmacists in relationships with patients, health professionals, and society.
I.A pharmacist respects the covenantal relationship between the patient and pharmacist.
Considering the patient-pharmacist relationship as a covenant means that a pharmacist has moral obligations in response to the gift of trust received from society. In return for this gift, a pharmacist promises to help individuals achieve optimum benefit from their medications, to be committed to their welfare, and to maintain their trust.
II. A pharmacist promotes the good of every patient in a caring, compassionate, and confidential manner.
A pharmacist places concern for the well-being of the patient at the center of professional practice. In doing so, a pharmacist considers needs stated by the patient as well as those defined by health science. A pharmacist is dedicated to protecting the dignity of the patient. With a caring attitude and a compassionate spirit, a pharmacist focuses on serving the patient in a private and confidential manner.
III. A pharmacist respects the autonomy and dignity of each patient.
A pharmacist promotes the right of self-determination and recognizes individual self-worth by encouraging patients to participate in decisions about their health. A pharmacist communicates with patients in terms that are understandable. In all cases, a pharmacist respects personal and cultural differences among patients.
IV. A pharmacist acts with honesty and integrity in professional relationships.
A pharmacist has a duty to tell the truth and to act with conviction of conscience. A pharmacist avoids discriminatory practices, behavior or work conditions that impair professional judgment, and actions that compromise dedication to the best interests of patients.
V. A pharmacist maintains professional competence.
A pharmacist has a duty to maintain knowledge and abilities as new medications, devices, and technologies become available and as health information advances.
VI. A pharmacist respects the values and abilities of colleagues and other health professionals.
When appropriate, a pharmacist asks for the consultation of colleagues or other health professionals or refers the patient. A pharmacist acknowledges that colleagues and other health professionals may differ in the beliefs and values they apply to the care of the patient.
VII. A pharmacist serves individual, community, and societal needs.
The primary obligation of a pharmacist is to individual patients. However, the obligations of a pharmacist may at times extend beyond the individual to the community and society. In these situations, the pharmacist recognizes the responsibilities that accompany these obligations and acts accordingly.
VIII. A pharmacist seeks justice in the distribution of health resources.
When health resources are allocated, a pharmacist is fair and equitable, balancing the needs of patients and society.
* adopted by the membership of the American Pharmacists Association October 27, 1994.
Questions about Scholastic Dishonesty
The Office of Student Conduct and Academic Integrity has prepared a website so students and faculty can access information about academic integrity on the UT homepage. The website will have all rules about scholastic dishonesty, and it will also contain examples of specific violations.
The website address is:
Adapted from the “Policy Statement on Scholastic Dishonesty in the MPA Program and the Professional Program in Accounting” (1995).
PROCEDURE FOR RESOLUTION OF GRIEVANCES
Grievances or issues concerning College of Pharmacy courses, faculty, or policies should be resolved in a professional manner. While guidelines are set out below, you should always consider how you would hope the situation would be handled if the grievance was directed towards you.
For purposes of this set of guidelines, a grievance is defined as “a complaint or disagreement in which a specific action is being requested to remedy the situation.”
TIME FRAME: Every effort should be made by each of the parties involved to handle the grievance in an expeditious manner, and in a time frame appropriate for the issue involved (e.g., before assignments are graded if an assignment is at issue; before the exam is given if scheduling is at issue; before grades are assigned if a grading policy is at issue; before the next course begins if a prerequisite or course policy is at issue, etc.)
The student should first make an appointment to visit with the faculty member involved, making clear at the time the nature of the meeting. If the student desires, the student may request that a Pharmacy Council member accompany the student during the meeting with the faculty member, but no Pharmacy Council member should feel obligated to participate if they do not feel that the grievance is valid. Other faculty members should not be asked by the student or faculty member involved to serve in the position of arbitrator or intermediary. While our College of Pharmacy enjoys a warm and open relationship between faculty and students, involvement by other faculty in a grievance between a faculty member and a student is rarely productive and may lead to substantial disharmony.
If the student feels that the grievance has not been resolved, and if the grievance involves a team-taught course in which the faculty member being addressed is not the course coordinator, the student (alone or accompanied by the same Pharmacy Council member) should then make an appointment to discuss the issue with the course coordinator. If the grievance does not involve a team-taught course, the student should skip step 2 and proceed to step 3.
If the student feels that the grievance has not been resolved, the student (alone or accompanied by the same Pharmacy Council member) should then make an appointment to discuss the grievance with the faculty member’s division head.
If the student feels that a course/faculty grievance has not been resolved at the division level, the student (alone or accompanied by the same Pharmacy Council member) should then take the grievance directly to an Assistant or Associate Dean in the Office of Student Affairs (Dean’s Office). If the issue concerns a divisional or college policy grievance which the student feels should be changed, the policy grievance (but not grievances with a particular course or faculty member) should then be taken to the Pharmacy Council for discussion. Recommendations resulting from that discussion should then be forwarded to the appropriate division head (for divisional policies) or to the Dean (for College policies).
If the student feels that the grievance has not been resolved in the Student Affairs Office, the student (alone or accompanied by the same Pharmacy Council member) should then appeal to the Dean of the College of Pharmacy. The student and Pharmacy Council member should feel free to seek advice from members of the Student Affairs Office (Dean’s Office) prior to this appeal.
Grievances that are unable to be resolved within the College through the procedures outlined above may be discussed with the University Ombudsman. The final level of appeal within The University is with the President.
PROCEDURE FOR REGISTERING A COMPLAINT WITH ACPE
The UT College of Pharmacy Pharm.D. Program is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE). Accreditation involves compliance with each of twenty-three standards accepted by academic pharmacy (AACP), pharmacy practice (APhA), and regulators of Pharmacy Practice (NABP). These standards can be found at the ACPE website. Any student who wishes to register a complaint about the College of Pharmacy in relation to compliance with any of these standards can do so by contacting ACPE through http://www.acpe-accredit.org/shared_info/complaints.htm.
PLEDGE OF PROFESSIONALISM
As a student of pharmacy, I believe there is a need to build and reinforce a professional identity founded on integrity, ethical behavior, and honor. This development, a vital process in my education, will help ensure that I am true to the professional relationship I establish between myself and society as I become a member of the pharmacy community. Integrity must be an essential part of my everyday life and I must practice pharmacy with honesty and commitment to service.
To accomplish this goal of professional development, I as a student of pharmacy should:
DEVELOP a sense of loyalty and duty to the profession of pharmacy by being a builder of community, one able and willing to contribute to the well-being of others and one who enthusiastically accepts the responsibility and accountability for membership in the profession.
FOSTER professional competency through life-long learning. I must strive for high ideals, teamwork and unity within the profession in order to provide optimal patient care.
SUPPORT my colleagues by actively encouraging personal commitment to the Oath of Maimonides and a Code of Ethics as set forth by the profession
INCORPORATE into my life and practice, dedication to excellence. This will require an ongoing reassessment of personal and professional values.
MAINTAIN the highest ideals and professional attributes to ensure and facilitate the covenantal relationship required of the pharmaceutical care giver.
The profession of pharmacy is one that demands adherence to a set of rigid ethical standards. These high ideals are necessary to ensure the quality of care extended to the patients I serve. As a student of pharmacy, I believe this does not start with graduation; rather, it begins with my membership in this professional college community. Therefore, I must strive to uphold these standards as I advance toward full membership in the profession of pharmacy.
Developed by the American Pharmaceutical Association Academy of Students of Pharmacy/American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Council of Deans (APhA-ASP/AACP-COD) Task Force on Professionalism; June 26, 1994
OATH OF A PHARMACIST
“I promise to devote myself to a lifetime of service to others through the profession of pharmacy. In fulfilling this vow:
- I will consider the welfare of humanity and relief of suffering my primary concerns.
- I will apply my knowledge, experience, and skills to the best of my ability to assure optimal outcomes for my patients.
- I will respect and protect all personal and health information entrusted to me.
- I will accept the lifelong obligation to improve my professional knowledge and competence.
- I will hold myself and my colleagues to the highest principles of our profession’s moral, ethical and legal conduct.
- I will embrace and advocate changes that improve patient care.
- I will utilize my knowledge, skills, experiences, and values to prepare the next generation of pharmacists.
I take these vows voluntarily with the full realization of the responsibility with which I am entrusted by the public.”
American Pharmaceutical Association
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy